Babur, Founder Of The Mughal Empire
Bābur, (Persian: “Tiger”), original name Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad, (born February 15, 1483) was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. His descendants, the Mughal emperors, built a long-lasting empire that covered much of the subcontinent until 1868, and that continues to shape the culture of India to this day. Babur himself was of noble blood; on his father's side, he was a Timurid, a Persianized Turk descended from Timur the Lame, and on his mother's side he was descended from Genghis Khan.
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad, nicknamed "Babur" or "Lion," was born into the Timurid royal family in Andijan, now in Uzbekistan, on February 14, 1483. His father, Umar Sheikh Mirza, was the Emir of Ferghana; his mother, Qutlaq Nigar Khanum, was the daughter of Moghuli king Yunus Khan.
By the time of Babur's birth, the remaining Mongol descendants in western Central Asia had intermarried with Turkic and Persian peoples, and assimilated into local culture. They were strongly influenced by Persia (using Farsi as their official court language), and they had converted to Islam. Most favored the mystic Sufism-infused style of Sunni Islam.
Taking the Throne
In 1494, the Emir of Ferghana died suddenly, and 11-year-old Babur ascended his father's throne. His seat was anything but secure, however, with numerous uncles and cousins plotting to replace him.
Evidently aware that a good offense is the best defense, the young emir set out to expand his holdings. By 1497, he had conquered the famous Silk Road oasis city of Samarkand. While he was thus engaged, however, his uncles and other nobles rose in rebellion back in Andijan. When Babur turned to defend his base, he once again lost control of Samarkand.
The determined young emir had regained both cities by 1501, but the Uzbek ruler Shaibani Khan challenged him over Samarkand, and dealt Babur's forces a crushing defeat. This marked the end of Babur's rule in what is now Uzbekistan.
The formation of the Mughal Empire
Fearing the Uzbeks, on the western facade of his kingdom, he turned to the East and its region of Punjab, a region formerly a member of the Timurid Empire. Region rather rich, its annexation would be a good source of income for him and it would open to him the doors of India. So he sent several troops into the Punjab to try to take Lahore, which he managed to do in 1523. Then, the next city, even more interesting, is Delhi, but it is directed by Lôdi, 3rd Sultanate Sultanate from Delhi, a hateful and hated character of all, including the local nobility, mostly Afghans. Burb therefore seized this opportunity and allied himself with a Punjab rebel leader, Alam Khan, who provided him with an army of 12,000 men.
At the head of such an army Babur walks on Delhi. Lôdi sends an army of 100,000 men and combat elephants. The two forces meet at Pânipat on April 21, 1526, the date of the great founding battle of the Mughal Empire. Lôdi's troops are defeated and Babur takes Delhi in the wake with the help of his son Humâyûn. He then proclaims himself Emperor of India and continues his journey on Agra, which they conquer together.